“It is only by the exercise of reason that man can discover God.”
– Thomas Paine, Age of Reason, Part 1
“It is a fraud of the Christian system to call the sciences human invention; it is only the application of them that is human. Every science has for its basis a system of principles as fixed and unalterable as those by which the universe is regulated and governed. Man cannot make principles, he can only discover them.”
– Thomas Paine, Age of Reason, Part 1
“What more does man want to know than that the hand or power that made these things is divine, is omnipotent? Let him believe this with the force it is impossible to repel, if he permits his reason to act, and his rule of moral life will follow of course.“
– Thomas Paine, Age of Reason, Part 1
THE AGE OF REASON
by Thomas Paine
TO MY FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
I PUT the following work under your protection. It contains my
opinions upon Religion. You will do me the justice to remember, that I
have always strenuously supported the Right of every Man to his own
opinion, however different that opinion might be to mine. He who
denies to another this right, makes a slave of himself to his
present opinion, because he precludes himself the right of changing
The most formidable weapon against errors of every kind is Reason.
I have never used any other, and I trust I never shall.
Your affectionate friend and fellow-citizen,
Luxembourg, 8th Pluvoise,
Second Year of the French Republic, one and indivisible.
January 27, O. S. 1794.
IT has been my intention, for several years past, to publish my
thoughts upon religion. I am well aware of the difficulties that
attend the subject, and from that consideration, had reserved it to
a more advanced period of life. I intended it to be the last
offering I should make to my fellow-citizens of all nations, and
that at a time when the purity of the motive that induced me to it,
could not admit of a question, even by those who might disapprove
The circumstance that has now taken place in France of the total
abolition of the whole national order of priesthood, and of everything
appertaining to compulsive systems of religion, and compulsive
articles of faith, has not only precipitated my intention, but
rendered a work of this kind exceedingly necessary, lest in the
general wreck of superstition, of false systems of government, and
false theology, we lose sight of morality, of humanity, and of the
theology that is true.
As several of my colleagues and others of my fellow-citizens of
France have given me the example of making their voluntary and
individual profession of faith, I also will make mine; and I do this
with all that sincerity and frankness with which the mind of man
communicates with itself.
I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for happiness beyond this life.
I believe in the equality of man; and I believe that religious
duties consist in doing justice, loving mercy, and endeavoring to make
our fellow-creatures happy.
But, lest it should be supposed that I believe in many other
things in addition to these, I shall, in the progress of this work,
declare the things I do not believe, and my reasons for not
I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish church, by
the Roman church, by the Greek church, by the Turkish church, by the
Protestant church, nor by any church that I know of. My own mind is my own church.
All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian
or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to
terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.
I do not mean by this declaration to condemn those who believe
otherwise; they have the same right to their belief as I have to mine.
But it is necessary to the happiness of man, that he be mentally
faithful to himself. Infidelity does not consist in believing, or in
disbelieving; it consists in professing to believe what he does not
It is impossible to calculate the moral mischief, if I may so
express it, that mental lying has produced in society. When a man
has so far corrupted and prostituted the chastity of his mind, as to
subscribe his professional belief to things he does not believe, he
has prepared himself for the commission of every other crime. He takes up the trade of a priest for the sake of gain, and in order to qualify himself for that trade, he begins with a perjury. Can we conceive any thing more destructive to morality than this?
Soon after I had published the pamphlet Common Sense, in
America, I saw the exceeding probability that a revolution in the
system of government would be followed by a revolution in the system
of religion. The adulterous connection of church and state, wherever
it had taken place, whether Jewish, Christian, or Turkish, had so
effectually prohibited by pains and penalties, every discussion upon
established creeds, and upon first principles of religion, that
until the system of government should be changed, those subjects could not be brought fairly and openly before the world; but that whenever this should be done, a revolution in the system of religion would follow. Human inventions and priestcraft would be detected; and man would return to the pure, unmixed and unadulterated belief of one God, and no more.
Every national church or religion has established itself by
pretending some special mission from God, communicated to certain
individuals. The Jews have their Moses; the Christians their Jesus
Christ, their apostles and saints; and the Turks their Mahomet, as
if the way to God was not open to every man alike.
Each of those churches show certain books, which they call
revelation, or the word of God. The Jews say, that their word of God
was given by God to Moses, face to face; the Christians say, that
their word of God came by divine inspiration: and the Turks say,
that their word of God (the Koran) was brought by an angel from
Heaven. Each of those churches accuse the other of unbelief; and for
my own part, I disbelieve them all.
As it is necessary to affix right ideas to words, I will, before I
proceed further into the subject, offer some other observations on the
word revelation. Revelation, when applied to religion, means something communicated immediately from God to man.
No one will deny or dispute the power of the Almighty to make such
a communication, if he pleases. But admitting, for the sake of a case,
that something has been revealed to a certain person, and not revealed to any other person, it is revelation to that person only. When he tells it to a second person, a second to a third, a third to a fourth,
and so on, it ceases to be a revelation to all those persons. It is
revelation to the first person only, and hearsay to every other, and
consequently they are not obliged to believe it.
It is a contradiction in terms and ideas, to call anything a
revelation that comes to us at second-hand, either verbally or in
writing. Revelation is necessarily limited to the first
communication- after this, it is only an account of something which
that person says was a revelation made to him; and though he may
find himself obliged to believe it, it cannot be incumbent on me to
believe it in the same manner; for it was not a revelation made to me,
and I have only his word for it that it was made to him.
When Moses told the children of Israel that he received the two
tables of the commandments from the hands of God, they were not
obliged to believe him, because they had no other authority for it
than his telling them so; and I have no other authority for it than
some historian telling me so. The commandments carry no internal
evidence of divinity with them; they contain some good moral precepts, such as any man qualified to be a lawgiver, or a legislator, could produce himself, without having recourse to supernatural
*It is, however, necessary to except the declaration which says
that God visits the sins of the fathers upon the children; it is
contrary to every principle of moral justice.
When I am told that the Koran was written in Heaven and brought to Mahomet by an angel, the account comes too near the same kind of
hearsay evidence and second-hand authority as the former. I did not
see the angel myself, and, therefore, I have a right not to believe
When also I am told that a woman called the Virgin Mary, said,
or gave out, that she was with child without any cohabitation with a
man, and that her betrothed husband, Joseph, said that an angel told
him so, I have a right to believe them or not; such a circumstance
required a much stronger evidence than their bare word for it; but
we have not even this- for neither Joseph nor Mary wrote any such
matter themselves; it is only reported by others that they said
so- it is hearsay upon hearsay, and I do not choose to rest my belief
upon such evidence.
It is, however, not difficult to account for the credit that was
given to the story of Jesus Christ being the son of God. He was born
when the heathen mythology had still some fashion and repute in the
world, and that mythology had prepared the people for the belief of
such a story. Almost all the extraordinary men that lived under the
heathen mythology were reputed to be the sons of some of their gods.
It was not a new thing, at that time, to believe a man to have been
celestially begotten; the intercourse of gods with women was then a
matter of familiar opinion. Their Jupiter, according to their
accounts, had cohabited with hundreds: the story, therefore, had
nothing in it either new, wonderful, or obscene; it was conformable to
the opinions that then prevailed among the people called Gentiles,
or Mythologists, and it was those people only that believed it. The
Jews who had kept strictly to the belief of one God, and no more,
and who had always rejected the heathen mythology, never credited
It is curious to observe how the theory of what is called the
Christian church sprung out of the tail of the heathen mythology. A
direct incorporation took place in the first instance, by making the
reputed founder to be celestially begotten. The trinity of gods that
then followed was no other than a reduction of the former plurality,
which was about twenty or thirty thousand: the statue of Mary
succeeded the statue of Diana of Ephesus; the deification of heroes
changed into the canonization of saints; the Mythologists had gods for
everything; the Christian Mythologists had saints for everything;
the church became as crowded with one, as the Pantheon had been with the other, and Rome was the place of both. The Christian theory is little else than the idolatry of the ancient Mythologists,
accommodated to the purposes of power and revenue; and it yet
remains to reason and philosophy to abolish the amphibious fraud.
Nothing that is here said can apply, even with the most distant
disrespect, to the real character of Jesus Christ. He was a virtuous
and an amiable man. The morality that he preached and practised was of the most benevolent kind; and though similar systems of morality had been preached by Confucius, and by some of the Greek philosophers, many years before; by the Quakers since; and by many good men in all ages, it has not been exceeded by any.
Jesus Christ wrote no account of himself, of his birth, parentage,
or any thing else; not a line of what is called the New Testament is
of his own writing. The history of him is altogether the work of other
people; and as to the account given of his resurrection and ascension,
it was the necessary counterpart to the story of his birth. His
historians having brought him into the world in a supernatural manner,
were obliged to take him out again in the same manner, or the first
part of the story must have fallen to the ground.
The wretched contrivance with which this latter part is told
exceeds every thing that went before it. The first part, that of the
miraculous conception, was not a thing that admitted of publicity; and
therefore the tellers of this part of the story had this advantage,
that though they might not be credited, they could not be detected.
They could not be expected to prove it, because it was not one of
those things that admitted of proof, and it was impossible that the
person of whom it was told could prove it himself.
But the resurrection of a dead person from the grave, and his
ascension through the air, is a thing very different as to the
evidence it admits of, to the invisible conception of a child in the
womb. The resurrection and ascension, supposing them to have taken
place, admitted of public and ocular demonstration, like that of the
ascension of a balloon, or the sun at noon-day, to all Jerusalem at
least. A thing which everybody is required to believe, requires that
the proof and evidence of it should be equal to all, and universal;
and as the public visibility of this last related act was the only
evidence that could give sanction to the former part, the whole of
it falls to the ground, because that evidence never was given. Instead
of this, a small number of persons, not more than eight or nine, are
introduced as proxies for the whole world, to say they saw it, and all
the rest of the world are called upon to believe it. But it appears
that Thomas did not believe the resurrection, and, as they say,
would not believe without having ocular and manual demonstration
himself. So neither will I, and the reason is equally as good for
me, and for every other person, as for Thomas.
It is in vain to attempt to palliate or disguise this matter.
The story, so far as relates to the supernatural part, has every
mark of fraud and imposition stamped upon the face of it. Who were the authors of it is as impossible for us now to know, as it is for us
to be assured that the books in which the account is related were
written by the persons whose names they bear; the best surviving
evidence we now have respecting that affair is the Jews. They are
regularly descended from the people who lived in the times this
resurrection and ascension is said to have happened, and they say,
it is not true. It has long appeared to me a strange inconsistency
to cite the Jews as a proof of the truth of the story. It is just
the same as if a man were to say, I will prove the truth of what I
have told you by producing the people who say it is false.
That such a person as Jesus Christ existed, and that he was
crucified, which was the mode of execution at that day, are historical
relations strictly within the limits of probability. He preached
most excellent morality and the equality of man; but he preached
also against the corruptions and avarice of the Jewish priests, and
this brought upon him the hatred and vengeance of the whole order of
priesthood. The accusation which those priests brought against him was that of sedition and conspiracy against the Roman government, to which the Jews were then subject and tributary; and it is not improbable that the Roman government might have some secret apprehensions of the effects of his doctrine, as well as the Jewish priests; neither is it improbable that Jesus Christ had in contemplation the delivery of the Jewish nation from the bondage of the Romans. Between the two, however, this virtuous reformer and revolutionist lost his life.
It is upon this plain narrative of facts, together with another
case I am going to mention, that the Christian Mythologists, calling
themselves the Christian Church, have erected their fable, which,
for absurdity and extravagance, is not exceeded by anything that is to
be found in the mythology of the ancients.
The ancient Mythologists tell us that the race of Giants made
war against Jupiter, and that one of them threw a hundred rocks
against him at one throw; that Jupiter defeated him with thunder,
and confined him afterward under Mount Etna, and that every time the
Giant turns himself Mount Etna belches fire.
It is here easy to see that the circumstance of the mountain, that
of its being a volcano, suggested the idea of the fable; and that
the fable is made to fit and wind itself up with that circumstance.
The Christian Mythologists tell us that their Satan made war
against the Almighty, who defeated him, and confined him afterward,
not under a mountain, but in a pit. It is here easy to see that the
first fable suggested the idea of the second; for the fable of Jupiter
and the Giants was told many hundred years before that of Satan.
Thus far the ancient and the Christian Mythologists differ very
little from each other. But the latter have contrived to carry the
matter much farther. They have contrived to connect the fabulous
part of the story of Jesus Christ with the fable originating from
Mount Etna; and in order to make all the parts of the story tie
together, they have taken to their aid the traditions of the Jews; for
the Christian mythology is made up partly from the ancient mythology
and partly from the Jewish traditions.
The Christian Mythologists, after having confined Satan in a
pit, were obliged to let him out again to bring on the sequel of the
fable. He is then introduced into the Garden of Eden, in the shape
of a snake or a serpent, and in that shape he enters into familiar
conversation with Eve, who is no way surprised to hear a snake talk;
and the issue of this tete-a-tete is that he persuades her to eat an
apple, and the eating of that apple damns all mankind.
After giving Satan this triumph over the whole creation, one would
have supposed that the Church Mythologists would have been kind enough to send him back again to the pit; or, if they had not done this, that they would have put a mountain upon him (for they say that their faith can remove a mountain), or have put him under a mountain, as the former mythologists had done, to prevent his getting again among the women and doing more mischief. But instead of this they leave him at large, without even obliging him to give his parole- the secret of which is, that they could not do without him; and after being at the trouble of making him, they bribed him to stay. They promised him ALL the Jews, ALL the Turks by anticipation, nine-tenths of the world beside, and Mahomet into the bargain. After this, who can
doubt the bountifulness of the Christian Mythology?
Having thus made an insurrection and a battle in Heaven, in
which none of the combatants could be either killed or wounded- put
Satan into the pit- let him out again- giving him a triumph over the
whole creation- damned all mankind by the eating of an apple, these
Christian Mythologists bring the two ends of their fable together.
They represent this virtuous and amiable man, Jesus Christ, to be at
once both God and Man, and also the Son of God, celestially
begotten, on purpose to be sacrificed, because they say that Eve in
her longing had eaten an apple.
Putting aside everything that might excite laughter by its
absurdity, or detestation by its profaneness, and confining
ourselves merely to an examination of the parts, it is impossible to
conceive a story more derogatory to the Almighty, more inconsistent
with his wisdom, more contradictory to his power, than this story is.
In order to make for it a foundation to rise upon, the inventors
were under the necessity of giving to the being whom they call
Satan, a power equally as great, if not greater than they attribute to
the Almighty. They have not only given him the power of liberating
himself from the pit, after what they call his fall, but they have
made that power increase afterward to infinity. Before this fall
they represent him only as an angel of limited existence, as they
represent the rest. After his fall, he becomes, by their account,
omnipresent. He exists everywhere, and at the same time. He occupies the whole immensity of space.
Not content with this deification of Satan, they represent him
as defeating, by stratagem, in the shape of an animal of the creation,
all the power and wisdom of the Almighty. They represent him as having compelled the Almighty to the direct necessity either of
surrendering the whole of the creation to the government and
sovereignty of this Satan, or of capitulating for its redemption by
coming down upon earth, and exhibiting himself upon a cross in the
shape of a man.
Had the inventors of this story told it the contrary way, that is,
had they represented the Almighty as compelling Satan to exhibit
himself on a cross, in the shape of a snake, as a punishment for his
new transgression, the story would have been less absurd- less
contradictory. But instead of this, they make the transgressor
triumph, and the Almighty fall.
That many good men have believed this strange fable, and lived
very good lives under that belief (for credulity is not a crime), is
what I have no doubt of. In the first place, they were educated to
believe it, and they would have believed anything else in the same
manner. There are also many who have been so enthusiastically
enraptured by what they conceived to be the infinite love of God to
man, in making a sacrifice of himself, that the vehemence of the
idea has forbidden and deterred them from examining into the
absurdity and profaneness of the story. The more unnatural anything
is, the more it is capable of becoming the object of dismal admiration.
But if objects for gratitude and admiration are our desire, do
they not present themselves every hour to our eyes? Do we not see a
fair creation prepared to receive us the instant we are born- a world
furnished to our hands, that cost us nothing? Is it we that light up
the sun, that pour down the rain, and fill the earth with abundance?
Whether we sleep or wake, the vast machinery of the universe still
goes on. Are these things, and the blessings they indicate in
future, nothing to us? Can our gross feelings be excited by no other
subjects than tragedy and suicide? Or is the gloomy pride of man
become so intolerable, that nothing can flatter it but a sacrifice
of the Creator?
I know that this bold investigation will alarm many, but it
would be paying too great a compliment to their credulity to forbear
it on their account; the times and the subject demand it to be done.
The suspicion that the theory of what is called the Christian Church
is fabulous is becoming very extensive in all countries; and it will
be a consolation to men staggering under that suspicion, and
doubting what to believe and what to disbelieve, to see the object
freely investigated. I therefore pass on to an examination of the
books called the Old and New Testament.
These books, beginning with Genesis and ending with Revelation
(which, by the by, is a book of riddles that requires a revelation
to explain it), are, we are told, the word of God. It is, therefore,
proper for us to know who told us so, that we may know what credit
to give to the report. The answer to this question is, that nobody can
tell, except that we tell one another so. The case, however,
historically appears to be as follows:
When the Church Mythologists established their system, they
collected all the writings they could find, and managed them as they
pleased. It is a matter altogether of uncertainty to us whether such
of the writings as now appear under the name of the Old and New
Testament are in the same state in which those collectors say they
found them, or whether they added, altered, abridged, or dressed
Be this as it may, they decided by vote which of the books out
of the collection they had made should be the WORD OF GOD, and which should not. They rejected several; they voted others to be doubtful, such as the books called the Apocrypha; and those books which had a majority of votes, were voted to be the word of God. Had they voted otherwise, all the people, since calling themselves Christians, had believed otherwise- for the belief of the one comes from the vote of the other. Who the people were that did all this, we know nothing of; they called themselves by the general name of the Church, and this is all we know of the matter.
As we have no other external evidence or authority for believing
these books to be the word of God than what I have mentioned, which is no evidence or authority at all, I come, in the next place, to examine the internal evidence contained in the books themselves.
In the former part of this Essay, I have spoken of revelation; I
now proceed further with that subject, for the purpose of applying
it to the books in question.
Revelation is a communication of something which the person to
whom that thing is revealed did not know before. For if I have done
a thing, or seen it done, it needs no revelation to tell me I have
done it, or seen it, nor to enable me to tell it, or to write it.
Revelation, therefore, cannot be applied to anything done upon
earth, of which man himself is the actor or the witness; and
consequently all the historical and anecdotal parts of the Bible,
which is almost the whole of it, is not within the meaning and compass
of the word revelation, and, therefore, is not the word of God.
When Samson ran off with the gate-posts of Gaza, if he ever did so
(and whether he did or not is nothing to us), or when he visited his
Delilah, or caught his foxes, or did any thing else, what has
revelation to do with these things? If they were facts, he could
tell them himself, or his secretary, if he kept one, could write them,
if they were worth either telling or writing; and if they were
fictions, revelation could not make them true; and whether true or
not, we are neither the better nor the wiser for knowing them. When we contemplate the immensity of that Being who directs and governs the incomprehensible WHOLE, of which the utmost ken of human sight can discover but a part, we ought to feel shame at calling such paltry
stories the word of God.
As to the account of the Creation, with which the Book of
Genesis opens, it has all the appearance of being a tradition which
the Israelites had among them before they came into Egypt; and after
their departure from that country they put it at the head of their
history, without telling (as it is most probable) that they did not
know how they came by it. The manner in which the account opens
shows it to be traditionary. It begins abruptly; it is nobody that
speaks; it is nobody that hears; it is addressed to nobody; it has
neither first, second, nor third person; it has every criterion of
being a tradition; it has no voucher. Moses does not take it upon
himself by introducing it with the formality that he uses on other
occasions, such as that of saying, “The Lord spake unto Moses,
Why it has been called the Mosaic account of the Creation, I am at
a loss to conceive. Moses, I believe, was too good a judge of such
subjects to put his name to that account. He had been educated among The Egyptians, who were a people as well skilled in science, and particularly in astronomy, as any people of their day; and the silence and caution that Moses observes in not authenticating the account, is a good negative evidence that he neither told it nor believed it The case is, that every nation of people has been world-makers, and the Israelites had as much right to set up the trade of world-making as any of the rest; and as Moses was not an Israelite, he might not choose to contradict the tradition. The account, however, is harmless; and this is more than can be said of many other parts of the Bible.
Whenever we read the obscene stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and torturous executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness, with which more than half the Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we called it the word of a demon, than the word of God. It is a history of wickedness, that has served to corrupt and brutalize mankind; and, for my part, I sincerely detest it, as I detest everything that is cruel.
We scarcely meet with anything, a few phrases excepted, but what
deserves either our abhorrence or our contempt, till we come to the
miscellaneous parts of the Bible. In the anonymous publications, the
Psalms, and the Book of Job, more particularly in the latter, we
find a great deal of elevated sentiment reverentially expressed of the
power and benignity of the Almighty; but they stand on no higher
rank than many other compositions on similar subjects, as well
before that time as since.
The Proverbs which are said to be Solomon’s, though most
probably a collection (because they discover a knowledge of life which
his situation excluded him from knowing), are an instructive table
of ethics. They are inferior in keenness to the proverbs of the
Spaniards, and not more wise and economical than those of the American Franklin.
All the remaining parts of the Bible, generally known by the
name of the Prophets, are the works of the Jewish poets and
itinerant preachers, who mixed poetry,* anecdote, and devotion
together- and those works still retain the air and style of poetry,
though in translation.
*As there are many readers who do not see that a composition is
poetry unless it be in rhyme, it is for their information that I add
Poetry consists principally in two things- imagery and
composition. The composition of poetry differs from that of prose in
the manner of mixing long and short syllables together. Take a long
syllable out of a line of poetry, and put a short one in the room of
it, or put a long syllable where a short one should be, and that line
will lose its poetical harmony. It will have an effect upon the line
like that of misplacing a note in a song. The imagery in these books,
called the Prophets, appertains altogether to poetry. It is
fictitious, and oft en extravagant, and not admissible in any other
kind of writing than poetry. To show that these writings are composed
in poetical numbers, I will take ten syllables, as they stand in the
book, and make a line of the same number of syllables, (heroic
measure) that shall rhyme with the last word. It will then be seen
that the composition of these books is poetical measure. The instance
I shall produce is from Isaiah:
“Hear, O ye heavens, and give ear, O earth!”
‘Tis God himself that calls attention forth.
Another instance I shall quote is from the mournful Jeremiah, to
which I shall add two other lines, for the purpose of carrying out the
figure, and showing the intention the poet:
“O! that mine head were waters and mine eyes”
Were fountains flowing like the liquid skies;
Then would I give the mighty flood release,
And weep a deluge for the human race.
There is not, throughout the whole book called the Bible, any word
that describes to us what we call a poet, nor any word that
describes what we call poetry. The case is, that the word prophet,
to which latter times have affixed a new idea, was the Bible word
for poet, and the word prophesying meant the art of making poetry.
It also meant the art of playing poetry to a tune upon any
instrument of music.
We read of prophesying with pipes, tabrets, and horns- of
prophesying with harps, with psalteries, with cymbals, and with
every other instrument of music then in fashion. Were we now to
speak of prophesying with a fiddle, or with a pipe and tabor, the
expression would have no meaning or would appear ridiculous, and to
some people contemptuous, because we have changed the meaning of the word.
We are told of Saul being among the prophets, and also that he
prophesied; but we are not told what they prophesied, nor what he
prophesied. The case is, there was nothing to tell; for these prophets
were a company of musicians and poets, and Saul joined in the concert, and this was called prophesying.
The account given of this affair in the book called Samuel is,
that Saul met a company of prophets; a whole company of them! coming down with a psaltery, a tabret, a pipe and a harp, and that they prophesied, and that he prophesied with them. But it appears
afterward, that Saul prophesied badly; that is, he performed his
part badly; for it is said, that an “evil spirit from God”* came
upon Saul, and he prophesied.
*As those men who call themselves divines and commentators, are
very fond of puzzling one another, I leave them to contest the meaning of the first part of the phrase, that of an evil spirit from God. I keep to my text- I keep to the meaning of the word prophesy.
Now, were there no other passage in the book called the Bible than
this, to demonstrate to us that we have lost the original meaning of
the word prophesy, and substituted another meaning in its place,
this alone would be sufficient; for it is impossible to use and
apply the word prophesy, in the place it is here used and applied,
if we give to it the sense which latter times have affixed to it.
The manner in which it is here used strips it of all religious
meaning, and shows that a man might then be a prophet, or he might
prophesy, as he may now be a poet or a musician, without any regard to the morality or immorality of his character. The word was originally a term of science, promiscuously applied to poetry and to music, and not restricted to any subject upon which poetry and music might be
Deborah and Barak are called prophets, not because they
predicted anything, but because they composed the poem or song that
bears their name, in celebration of an act already done. David is
ranked among the prophets, for he was a musician, and was also reputed to be (though perhaps very erroneously) the author of the Psalms. But Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are not called prophets; it does not appear from any accounts we have that they could either sing, play music, or make poetry.
We are told of the greater and the lesser prophets. They might
as well tell us of the greater and the lesser God; for there cannot be
degrees in prophesying consistently with its modern sense. But there
are degrees in poetry, and therefore the phrase is reconcilable to the
case, when we understand by it the greater and the lesser poets.
It is altogether unnecessary, after this, to offer any
observations upon what those men, styled prophets, have written. The
axe goes at once to the root, by showing that the original meaning
of the word has been mistaken and consequently all the inferences that have been drawn from those books, the devotional respect that has been paid to them, and the labored commentaries that have been written upon them, under that mistaken meaning, are not worth disputing about. In many things, however, the writings of the Jewish poets deserve a better fate than that of being bound up, as they now are with the trash that accompanies them, under the abused name of the word of God.
If we permit ourselves to conceive right ideas of things, we
must necessarily affix the idea, not only of unchangeableness, but
of the utter impossibility of any change taking place, by any means or
accident whatever, in that which we would honor with the name of the
word of God; and therefore the word of God cannot exist in any written or human language.
The continually progressive change to which the meaning of words
is subject, the want of a universal language which renders translation
necessary, the errors to which translations are again subject, the
mistakes of copyists and printers, together with the possibility of
willful alteration, are of themselves evidences that the human
language, whether in speech or in print, cannot be the vehicle of
the word of God. The word of God exists in something else.
Did the book called the Bible excel in purity of ideas and
expression all the books that are now extant in the world, I would not
take it for my rule of faith, as being the word of God, because the
possibility would nevertheless exist of my being imposed upon. But
when I see throughout the greater part of this book scarcely
anything but a history of the grossest vices and a collection of the
most paltry and contemptible tales, I cannot dishonor my Creator by
calling it by his name.
Thus much for the Bible; I now go on to the book called the New
Testament. The New Testament! that is, the new will, as if there could
be two wills of the Creator.
Had it been the object or the intention of Jesus Christ to
establish a new religion, he would undoubtedly have written the system himself, or procured it to be written in his life-time. But there is no publication extant authenticated with his name. All the books
called the New Testament were written after his death. He was a Jew by birth and by profession; and he was the son of God in like manner that every other person is- for the Creator is the Father of All.
The first four books, called Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, do not
give a history of the life of Jesus Christ, but only detached
anecdotes of him. It appears from these books that the whole time of
his being a preacher was not more than eighteen months; and it was
only during this short time that these men became acquainted with him. They make mention of him at the age of twelve years, sitting, they say, among the Jewish doctors, asking and answering them questions. As this was several years before their acquaintance with him began, it is most probable they had this anecdote from his parents. From this time there is no account of him for about sixteen years. Where he lived, or how he employed himself during this interval, is not known. Most probably he was working at his father’s trade, which was that of a carpenter. It does not appear that he had any school education, and the probability is, that he could not write, for his parents were extremely poor, as appears from their not being able to pay for a bed when he was born.
It is somewhat curious that the three persons whose names are
the most universally recorded, were of very obscure parentage. Moses
was a foundling; Jesus Christ was born in a stable; and Mahomet was
a mule driver. The first and last of these men were founders of
different systems of religion; but Jesus Christ founded no new system.
He called men to the practice of moral virtues and the belief of one
God. The great trait in his character is philanthropy.
The manner in which he was apprehended shows that he was not
much known at that time; and it shows also, that the meetings he
then held with his followers were in secret; and that he had given
over or suspended preaching publicly. Judas could not otherwise betray him than by giving information where he was, and pointing him out to the officers that went to arrest him; and the reason for employing and paying Judas to do this could arise only from the cause already mentioned, that of his not being much known and living concealed.
The idea of his concealment not only agrees very ill with his
reputed divinity, but associates with it something of pusillanimity;
and his being betrayed, or in other words, his being apprehended, on
the information of one of his followers, shows that he did not
intend to be apprehended, and consequently that he did not intend to
The Christian Mythologists tell us, that Christ died for the
sins of the world, and that he came on purpose to die. Would it not
then have been the same if he had died of a fever or of the small-pox,
of old age, or of anything else?
The declaratory sentence which, they say, was passed upon Adam,
in case he eat of the apple, was not, that thou shall surely be
crucified, but thou shalt surely die- the sentence of death, and not
the manner of dying. Crucifixion, therefore, or any other particular
manner of dying, made no part of the sentence that Adam was to suffer, and consequently, even upon their own tactics, it could make no part of the sentence that Christ was to suffer in the room of Adam. A fever would have done as well as a cross, if there was any occasion for either.
The sentence of death, which they tell us was thus passed upon
Adam must either have meant dying naturally, that is, ceasing to live,
or have meant what these Mythologists call damnation; and,
consequently, the act of dying on the part of Jesus Christ, must,
according to their system, apply as a prevention to one or other of
these two things happening to Adam and to us.
That it does not prevent our dying is evident, because we all die;
and if their accounts of longevity be true, men die faster since the
crucifixion than before; and with respect to the second explanation
(including with it the natural death of Jesus Christ as a substitute
for the eternal death or damnation of all mankind), it is
impertinently representing the Creator as coming off, or revoking
the sentence, by a pun or a quibble upon the word death. That
manufacturer of quibbles, St. Paul, if he wrote the books that bear
his name, has helped this quibble on by making another quibble upon
the word Adam. He makes there to be two Adams; the one who sins in
fact, and suffers by proxy; the other who sins by proxy, and suffers
in fact. A religion thus interlarded with quibble, subterfuge, and pun
has a tendency to instruct its professors in the practice of these
arts. They acquire the habit without being aware of the cause.
If Jesus Christ was the being which those Mythologists tell us
he was, and that he came into this world to suffer, which is a word
they sometimes use instead of to die, the only real suffering he could
have endured, would have been to live. His existence here was a
state of exilement or transportation from Heaven, and the way back
to his original country was to die. In fine, everything in this
strange system is the reverse of what it pretends to be. It is the
reverse of truth, and I become so tired of examining into its
inconsistencies and absurdities, that I hasten to the conclusion of
it, in order to proceed to something better.
How much or what parts of the books called the New Testament, were written by the persons whose names they bear, is what we can know nothing of; neither are we certain in what language they were
originally written. The matters they now contain may be classed
under two beads- anecdote and epistolary correspondence.
The four books already mentioned, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
are altogether anecdotal. They relate events after they had taken
place. They tell what Jesus Christ did and said, and what others did
and said to him; and in several instances they relate the same event
differently. Revelation is necessarily out of the question with
respect to those books; not only because of the disagreement of the
writers, but because revelation cannot be applied to the relating of
facts by the person who saw them done, nor to the relating or
recording of any discourse or conversation by those who beard it.
The book called the Acts of the Apostles (an anonymous work) belongs
also to the anecdotal part.
All the other parts of the New Testament, except the book of
enigmas called the Revelations, are a collection of letters under
the name of epistles; and the forgery of letters has been such a
common practice in the world, that the probability is at least
equal, whether they are genuine or forged. One thing, however, is much less equivocal, which is, that out of the matters contained in those books, together with the assistance of some old stories, the Church has set up a system of religion very contradictory to the character of the person whose name it bears. It has set up a religion of pomp and revenue, in pretended imitation of a person whose life was humility and poverty.
The invention of purgatory, and of the releasing of souls
therefrom by prayers bought of the church with money; the selling of
pardons, dispensations, and indulgences, are revenue laws, without
bearing that name or carrying that appearance. But the case
nevertheless is, that those things derive their origin from the
paroxysm of the crucifixion and the theory deduced therefrom, which
was that one person could stand in the place of another, and could
perform meritorious service for him. The probability, therefore, is
that the whole theory or doctrine of what is called the redemption
(which is said to have been accomplished by the act of one person in
the room of another) was originally fabricated on purpose to bring
forward and build all those secondary and pecuniary redemptions
upon; and that the passages in the books, upon which the idea or
theory of redemption is built, have been manufactured and fabricated
for that purpose. Why are we to give this Church credit when she tells
us that those books are genuine in every part, any more than we give
her credit for everything else she has told us, or for the miracles
she says she had performed? That she could fabricate writings is
certain, because she could write; and the composition of the
writings in question is of that kind that anybody might do it; and
that she did fabricate them is not more inconsistent with
probability than that she could tell us, as she has done, that she
could and did work miracles.
Since, then no external evidence can, at this long distance of
time, be produced to prove whether the Church fabricated the doctrines called redemption or not (for such evidence, whether for or against, would be subject to the same suspicion of being fabricated), the case can only be referred to the internal evidence which the thing carries within itself; and this affords a very strong presumption of its being a fabrication. For the internal evidence is that the theory or doctrine of redemption bas for its base an idea of pecuniary Justice, and not that of moral Justice.
If I owe a person money, and cannot pay him, and he threatens to
put me in prison, another person can take the debt upon himself, and
pay it for me; but if I have committed a crime, every circumstance
of the case is changed; moral Justice cannot take the innocent for the
guilty, even if the innocent would offer itself. To suppose Justice to
do this, is to destroy the principle of its existence, which is the
thing itself; it is then no longer Justice, it is indiscriminate
This single reflection will show, that the doctrine of
redemption is founded on a mere pecuniary idea corresponding to that
of a debt which another person might pay; and as this pecuniary idea
corresponds again with the system of second redemption, obtained
through the means of money given to the Church for pardons, the
probability is that the same persons fabricated both the one and the
other of those theories; and that, in truth there is no such thing
as redemption- that it is fabulous, and that man stands in the same
relative condition with his Maker as he ever did stand since man
existed, and that it is his greatest consolation to think so.
Let him believe this, and he will live more consistently and
morally than by any other system; it is by his being taught to
contemplate himself as an outlaw, as an outcast, as a beggar, as a
mumper, as one thrown, as it were, on a dunghill at an immense
distance from his Creator, and who must make his approaches by
creeping and cringing to intermediate beings, that he conceives either
a contemptuous disregard for everything under the name of religion, or becomes indifferent, or turns what he calls devout. In the latter
case, he consumes his life in grief, or the affectation of it; his
prayers are reproaches; his humility is ingratitude; he calls
himself a worm, and the fertile earth a dunghill; and all the
blessings of life by the thankless name of vanities; he despises the
choicest gift of God to man, the GIFT OF REASON; and having endeavored to force upon himself the belief of a system against which reason revolts, he ungratefully calls it human reason, as if man could give reason to himself.
Yet, with all this strange appearance of humility and this
contempt for human reason, he ventures into the boldest
presumptions; he finds fault with everything; his selfishness is never
satisfied; his ingratitude is never at an end. He takes on himself
to direct the Almighty what to do, even in the government of the
universe; he prays dictatorially; when it is sunshine, he prays for
rain, and when it is rain, he prays for sunshine; he follows the
same idea in everything that he prays for; for what is the amount of
all his prayers but an attempt to make the Almighty change his mind,
and act otherwise than he does? It is as if he were to say: Thou
knowest not so well as I.
But some, perhaps, will say: Are we to have no word of God- no
revelation? I answer, Yes; there is a word of God; there is a
THE WORD OF GOD IS THE CREATION WE BEHOLD and it is in this
word, which no human invention can counterfeit or alter, that God
speaketh universally to man.
Human language is local and changeable, and is therefore incapable
of being used as the means of unchangeable and universal
information. The idea that God sent Jesus Christ to publish, as they
say, the glad tidings to all nations, from one end of the earth to the
other, is consistent only with the ignorance of those who knew nothing
of the extent of the world, and who believed, as those
world-saviours believed, and continued to believe for several
centuries (and that in contradiction to the discoveries of
philosophers and the experience of navigators), that the earth was
flat like a trencher, and that man might walk to the end of it.
But how was Jesus Christ to make anything known to all nations? He could speak but one language which was Hebrew, and there are in the world several hundred languages. Scarcely any two nations speak the same language, or understand each other; and as to translations, every man who knows anything of languages knows that it is impossible to translate from one language to another, not only without losing a great part of the original, but frequently of mistaking the sense; and besides all this, the art of printing was wholly unknown at the time Christ lived.
It is always necessary that the means that are to accomplish any
end be equal to the accomplishment of that end, or the end cannot be
accomplished. It is in this that the difference between finite and
infinite power and wisdom discovers itself. Man frequently fails in
accomplishing his ends, from a natural inability of the power to the
purpose, and frequently from the want of wisdom to apply power
properly. But it is impossible for infinite power and wisdom to fail
as man faileth. The means it useth are always equal to the end; but
human language, more especially as there is not an universal language, is incapable of being used as an universal means of unchangeable and uniform information, and therefore it is not the means that God useth in manifesting himself universally to man.
It is only in the CREATION that all our ideas and conceptions of a
word of God can unite. The Creation speaketh an universal language,
independently of human speech or human language, multiplied and
various as they may be. It is an ever-existing original, which every
man can read. It cannot be forged; it cannot be counterfeited; it
cannot be lost; it cannot be altered; it cannot be suppressed. It does
not depend upon the will of man whether it shall be published or
not; it publishes itself from one end of the earth to the other. It
preaches to all nations and to all worlds; and this word of God
reveals to man all that is necessary for man to know of God.
Do we want to contemplate his power? We see it in the immensity of the Creation. Do we want to contemplate his wisdom? We see it in the unchangeable order by which the incomprehensible whole is governed! Do we want to contemplate his munificence? We see it in the abundance with which he fills the earth. Do we want to contemplate his mercy? We see it in his not withholding that abundance even from the unthankful. In fine, do we want to know what God is? Search not the book called the Scripture, which any human hand might make, but the Scripture called the Creation.
The only idea man can affix to the name of God is that of a
first cause, the cause of all things. And incomprehensible and
difficult as it is for a man to conceive what a first cause is, he
arrives at the belief of it from the tenfold greater difficulty of
disbelieving it. It is difficult beyond description to conceive that
space can have no end; but it is more difficult to conceive an end. It
is difficult beyond the power of man to conceive an eternal duration
of what we call time; but it is more impossible to conceive a time
when there shall be no time.
In like manner of reasoning, everything we behold carries in
itself the internal evidence that it did not make itself Every man
is an evidence to himself that he did not make himself; neither
could his father make himself, nor his grandfather, nor any of his
race; neither could any tree, plant, or animal make itself; and it
is the conviction arising from this evidence that carries us on, as it
were, by necessity to the belief of a first cause eternally
existing, of a nature totally different to any material existence we
know of, and by the power of which all things exist; and this first
cause man calls God.
It is only by the exercise of reason that man can discover God.
Take away that reason, and he would be incapable of understanding
anything; and, in this case, it would be just as consistent to read
even the book called the Bible to a horse as to a man. How, then, is
it that those people pretend to reject reason?
Almost the only parts in the book called the Bible that convey
to us any idea of God, are some chapters in Job and the 19th Psalm;
I recollect no other. Those parts are true deistical compositions, for
they treat of the Deity through his works. They take the book of
Creation as the word of God, they refer to no other book, and all
the inferences they make are drawn from that volume.
I insert in this place the 19th Psalm, as paraphrased into English
verse by Addison. I recollect not the prose, and where I write this
I have not the opportunity of seeing it.
“The spacious firmament on high,
With all the blue ethereal sky,
And spangled heavens, a shining frame,
Their great original proclaim.
The unwearied sun, from day to day,
Does his Creator’s power display;
And publishes to every land
The work of an Almighty hand.
“Soon as the evening shades prevail,
The moon takes up the wondrous tale,
And nightly to the list’ning earth
Repeats the story of her birth;
While all the stars that round her burn,
And all the planets, in their turn,
Confirm the tidings as they roll,
And spread the truth from pole to pole.
“What though in solemn silence all
Move round this dark terrestrial ball?
What though no real voice, or sound,
Amidst their radiant orbs be found?
In reason’s ear they all rejoice
And utter forth a glorious voice,
Forever singing, as they shine,
THE HAND THAT MADE US IS DIVINE.”
What more does man want to know than that the hand or power that made these things is divine, is omnipotent? Let him believe this
with the force it is impossible to repel, if he permits his reason
to act, and his rule of moral life will follow of course.
The allusions in Job have, all of them, the same tendency with
this Psalm; that of deducing or proving a truth that would be
otherwise unknown, from truths already known.
I recollect not enough of the passages in Job to insert them
correctly; but there is one occurs to me that is applicable to the
subject I am speaking upon. “Canst thou by searching find out God?
Canst thou find out the Almighty to perfection?”
I know not how the printers have pointed this passage, for I
keep no Bible; but it contains two distinct questions that admit of
First,- Canst thou by searching find out God? Yes because, in the
first place, I know I did not make myself, and yet I have existence;
and by searching into the nature of other things, I find that no other
thing could make itself; and yet millions of other things exist;
therefore it is, that I know, by positive conclusion resulting from
this search, that there is a power superior to all those things, and
that power is God.
Secondly,- Canst thou find out the Almighty to perfection? No;
not only because the power and wisdom He has manifested in the
structure of the Creation that I behold is to me incomprehensible, but
because even this manifestation, great as it is, is probably but a
small display of that immensity of power and wisdom by which
millions of other worlds, to me invisible by their distance, were
created and continue to exist.
It is evident that both these questions were put to the reason
of the person to whom they are supposed to have been addressed; and it is only by admitting the first question to be answered
affirmatively, that the second could follow. It would have been
unnecessary and even absurd, to have put a second question, more
difficult than the first, if the first question had been answered
negatively. The two questions have different objects; the first refers
to the existence of God, the second to his attributes; reason can
discover the one, but it falls infinitely short in discovering the
whole of the other.
I recollect not a single passage in all the writings ascribed to
the men called apostles, that conveys any idea of what God is. Those
writings are chiefly controversial; and the subjects they dwell
upon, that of a man dying in agony on a cross, is better suited to the
gloomy genius of a monk in a cell, by whom it is not impossible they
were written, than to any man breathing the open air of the
Creation. The only passage that occurs to me, that has any reference
to the works of God, by which only his power and wisdom can be
known, is related to have been spoken by Jesus Christ as a remedy
against distrustful care. “Behold the lilies of the field, they toil
not, neither do they spin.” This, however, is far inferior to the
allusions in Job and in the 19th Psalm; but it is similar in idea, and
the modesty of the imagery is correspondent to the modesty of the man.
As to the Christian system of faith, it appears to me as a species
of Atheism- a sort of religious denial of God. It professes to
believe in a man rather than in God. It is a compound made up
chiefly of Manism with but little Deism, and is as near to Atheism
as twilight is to darkness. It introduces between man and his Maker an
opaque body, which it calls a Redeemer, as the moon introduces her
opaque self between the earth and the sun, and it produces by this
means a religious, or an irreligious, eclipse of light. It has put the
whole orbit of reason into shade.
The effect of this obscurity has been that of turning everything
upside down, and representing it in reverse, and among the revolutions it has thus magically produced, it has made a revolution in theology.
That which is now called natural philosophy, embracing the whole
circle of science, of which astronomy occupies the chief place, is the
study of the works of God, and of the power and wisdom of God in his
works, and is the true theology.
As to the theology that is now studied in its place, it is the
study of human opinions and of human fancies concerning God. It is not the study of God himself in the works that he has made, but in the
works or writings that man has made; and it is not among the least
of the mischiefs that the Christian system has done to the world, that
it has abandoned the original and beautiful system of theology, like a
beautiful innocent, to distress and reproach, to make room for the hag
The Book of Job and the 19th Psalm, which even the Church admits
to be more ancient than the chronological order in which they stand in
the book called the Bible, are theological orations conformable to the
original system of theology. The internal evidence of those orations
proves to a demonstration that the study and contemplation of the
works of creation, and of the power and wisdom of God, revealed and
manifested in those works, made a great part in the religious devotion
of the times in which they were written; and it was this devotional
study and contemplation that led to the discovery of the principles
upon which what are now called sciences are established; and it is
to the discovery of these principles that almost all the arts that
contribute to the convenience of human life owe their existence. Every
principal art has some science for its parent, though the person who
mechanically performs the work does not always, and but very seldom, perceive the connection.
It is a fraud of the Christian system to call the sciences human
invention; it is only the application of them that is human. Every
science has for its basis a system of principles as fixed and
unalterable as those by which the universe is regulated and
governed. Man cannot make principles, he can only discover them.
For example: Every person who looks at an almanac sees an
account when an eclipse will take place, and he sees also that it
never fails to take place according to the account there given. This
shows that man is acquainted with the laws by which the heavenly
bodies move. But it would be something worse than ignorance, were
any Church on earth to say that those laws are a human invention. It
would also be ignorance, or something worse, to say that the
scientific principles by the aid of which man is enabled to
calculate and foreknow when an eclipse will take place, are a human
invention. Man cannot invent a thing that is eternal and immutable;
and the scientific principles he employs for this purpose must be, and
are of necessity, as eternal and immutable as the laws by which the
heavenly bodies move, or they could not be used as they are to
ascertain the time when, and the manner how, an eclipse will take
The scientific principles that man employs to obtain the
foreknowledge of an eclipse, or of anything else relating to the
motion of the heavenly bodies, are contained chiefly in that part of
science which is called trigonometry, or the properties of a triangle,
which, when applied to the study of the heavenly bodies, is called
astronomy; when applied to direct the course of a ship on the ocean,
it is called navigation; when applied to the construction of figures
drawn by rule and compass, it is called geometry; when applied to
the construction of plans or edifices, it is called architecture; when
applied to the measurement of any portion of the surface of the earth,
it is called land surveying. In fine, it is the soul of science; it is
an eternal truth; it contains the mathematical demonstration of
which man speaks, and the extent of its uses is unknown.
It may be said that man can make or draw a triangle, and therefore
a triangle is a human invention.
But the triangle, when drawn, is no other than the image of the
principle; it is a delineation to the eye, and from thence to the
mind, of a principle that would otherwise be imperceptible. The
triangle does not make the principle, any more than a candle taken
into a room that was dark makes the chairs and tables that before were invisible. All the properties of a triangle exist independently of the figure, and existed before any triangle was drawn or thought of by
man. Man had no more to do in the formation of these properties or
principles, than he had to do in making the laws by which the heavenly
bodies move; and therefore the one must have the same Divine origin as the other.
In the same manner, as it may be said, that man can make a
triangle, so also, may it be said, he can make the mechanical
instrument called a lever; but the principle by which the lever acts
is a thing distinct from the instrument, and would exist if the
instrument did not; it attaches itself to the instrument after it is
made; the instrument, therefore, cannot act otherwise than it does
act; neither can all the efforts of human invention make it act
otherwise- that which, in all such cases, man calls the effect is no
other than the principle itself rendered perceptible to the senses.
Since, then, man cannot make principles, from whence did he gain a knowledge of them, so as to be able to apply them, not only to
things on earth, but to ascertain the motion of bodies so immensely
distant from him as all the heavenly bodies are? From whence, I ask,
could he gain that knowledge, but from the study of the true theology?
It is the structure of the universe that has taught this knowledge
to man. That structure is an ever-existing exhibition of every
principle upon which every part of mathematical science is founded.
The offspring of this science is mechanics; for mechanics is no
other than the principles of science applied practically. The man
who proportions the several parts of a mill, uses the same
scientific principles as if he had the power of constructing a
universe; but as he cannot give to matter that invisible agency by
which all the component parts of the immense machine of the universe
have influence upon each other, and act in motional unison together,
without any apparent contact, and to which man has given the name of attraction, gravitation, and repulsion, he supplies the place of
that agency by the humble imitation of teeth and cogs. All the parts
of man’s microcosm must visibly touch; but could he gain a knowledge
of that agency, so as to be able to apply it in practice, we might
then say that another canonical book of the Word of God had been
If man could alter the properties of the lever, so also could he
alter the properties of the triangle, for a lever (taking that sort of
lever which is called a steelyard, for the sake of explanation) forms,
when in motion, a triangle. The line it descends from (one point of
that line being in the fulcrum), the line it descends to, and the cord
of the arc which the end of the lever describes in the air, are the
three sides of a triangle. The other arm of the lever describes also a
triangle; and the corresponding sides of those two triangles,
calculated scientifically, or measured geometrically, and also the
sines, tangents, and secants generated from the angles, and
geometrically measured, have the same proportions to each other, as
the different weights have that will balance each other on the
lever, leaving the weight of the lever out of the case.
It may also be said, that man can make a wheel and axis; that he
can put wheels of different magnitudes together, and produce a mill.
Still the case comes back to the same point, which is, that he did not
make the principle that gives the wheels those powers. That
principle is as unalterable as in the former case, or rather it is the
same principle under a different appearance to the eye.
The power that two wheels of different magnitudes have upon each
other, is in the same proportion as if the semi-diameter of the two
wheels were joined together and made into that kind of lever I have
described, suspended at the part where the semi-diameters join; for
the two wheels, scientifically considered, are no other than the two
circles generated by the motion of the compound lever.
It is from the study of the true theology that all out knowledge
of science is derived, and it is from that knowledge that all the arts
The Almighty Lecturer, by displaying the principles of science
in the structure of the universe, has invited man to study and to
imitation. It is as if He had said to the inhabitants of this globe,
that we call ours, “I have made an earth for man to dwell upon, and
I have rendered the starry heavens visible, to teach him science and
the arts. He can now provide for his own comfort, AND LEARN FROM MY MUNIFICENCE TO ALL, TO BE KIND TO EACH OTHER.”
Of what use is it, unless it be to teach man something, that his
eye is endowed with the power of beholding to an incomprehensible
distance, an immensity of worlds revolving in the ocean of space? Or
of what use is it that this immensity of worlds is visible to man?
What has man to do with the Pleiades, with Orion, with Sirius, with
the star he calls the North Star, with the moving orbs he has named
Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, if no uses are to follow
from their being visible? A less power of vision would have been
sufficient for man, if the immensity he now possesses were given
only to waste itself, as it were, on an immense desert of space
glittering with shows.
It is only by contemplating what he calls the starry heavens, as
the book and school of science, that he discovers any use in their
being visible to him, or any advantage resulting from his immensity of
vision. But when he contemplates the subject in this light he sees
an additional motive for saying, that nothing was made in vain; for in
vain would be this power of vision if it taught man nothing.
As the Christian system of faith has made a revolution in
theology, so also has it made a revolution in the state of learning.
That which is now called learning, was not learning originally.
Learning does not consist, as the schools now make it consist, in
the knowledge of languages, but in the knowledge of things to which
language gives names.
The Greeks were a learned people, but learning with them did not
consist in speaking Greek, any more than in a Roman’s speaking
Latin, or a Frenchman’s speaking French, or an Englishman’s speaking
English. From what we know of the Greeks, it does not appear that they knew or studied any language but their own, and this was one cause of their becoming so learned: it afforded them more time to apply themselves to better studies. The schools of the Greeks were schools of science and philosophy, and not of languages; and it is in the knowledge of the things that science and philosophy teach, that
Almost all the scientific learning that now exists came to us from
the Greeks, or the people who spoke the Greek language. It, therefore, became necessary for the people of other nations who spoke a different language that some among them should learn the Greek language, in order that the learning the Greeks had, might be made known in those nations, by translating the Greek books of science and philosophy into the mother tongue of each nation.
The study, therefore, of the Greek language (and in the same
manner for the Latin) was no other than the drudgery business of a
linguist; and the language thus obtained, was no other than the means, as it were the tools, employed to obtain the learning the Greeks had. It made no part of the learning itself, and was so distinct
from it, as to make it exceedingly probable that the persons who had
studied Greek sufficiently to translate those works, such, for
instance, as Euclid’s Elements, did not understand any of the learning
the works contained.
As there is now nothing new to be learned from the dead languages, all the useful books being already translated, the languages are become useless, and the time expended in teaching and learning them is wasted. So far as the study of languages may contribute to the progress and communication of knowledge, (for it has nothing to do with the creation of knowledge), it is only in the living languages that new knowledge is to be found; and certain it is that, in general,
a youth will learn more of a living language in one year, than of a
dead language in seven, and it is but seldom that the teacher knows
much of it himself. The difficulty of learning the dead languages does
not arise from any superior abstruseness in the languages
themselves, but in their being dead, and the pronunciation entirely
lost. It would be the same thing with any other language when it
becomes dead. The best Greek linguist that now exists does not
understand Greek so well as a Grecian plowman did, or a Grecian
milkmaid; and the same for the Latin, compared with a plowman or
milkmaid of the Romans; it would therefore be advantageous to the
state of learning to abolish the study of the dead languages, and to
make learning consist, as it originally did, in scientific knowledge.
The apology that is sometimes made for continuing to teach the
dead languages is, that they are taught at a time when a child is
not capable of exerting any other mental faculty than that of
memory; but that is altogether erroneous. The human mind has a natural disposition to scientific knowledge, and to the things
connected with it. The first and favorite amusement of a child, even before it begins to play, is that of imitating the works of man. It builds houses with cards or sticks; it navigates the little ocean of a bowl of water with a paper boat, or dams the stream of a gutter and contrives something which it calls a mill; and it interests itself in the fate of its works with a care that resembles affection. It afterwards goes to school, where its genius is killed by the barren study of a dead language, and the philosopher is lost in the linguist.
But the apology that is now made for continuing to teach the
dead languages, could not be the cause, at first, of cutting down
learning to the narrow and humble sphere of linguistry; the cause,
therefore, must be sought for elsewhere. In all researches of this
kind, the best evidence that can be produced, is the internal evidence
the thing carries with itself, and the evidence of circumstances
that unite with it; both of which, in this case, are not difficult
to be discovered.
Putting then aside, as a matter of distinct consideration, the
outrage offered to the moral justice of God by supposing him to make
the innocent suffer for the guilty, and also the loose morality and
low contrivance of supposing him to change himself into the shape of a
man, in order to make an excuse to himself for not executing his
supposed sentence upon Adam- putting, I say, those things aside as
matter of distinct consideration, it is certain that what is called
the Christian system of faith, including in it the whimsical account
of the creation- the strange story of Eve- the snake and the apple-
the ambiguous idea of a man-god- the corporeal idea of the death of a
god- the mythological idea of a family of gods, and the Christian
system of arithmetic, that three are one, and one is three, are all
irreconcilable, not only to the divine gift of reason that God hath
given to man, but to the knowledge that man gains of the power and
wisdom of God, by the aid of the sciences and by studying the
structure of the universe that God has made.
The setters-up, therefore, and the advocates of the Christian
system of faith could not but foresee that the continually progressive
knowledge that man would gain, by the aid of science, of the power and wisdom of God, manifested in the structure of the universe and in
all the works of Creation, would militate against, and call into
question, the truth of their system of faith; and therefore it
became necessary to their purpose to cut learning down to a size
less dangerous to their project, and this they effected by restricting
the idea of learning to the dead study of dead languages.
They not only rejected the study of science out of the Christian
schools, but they persecuted it, and it is only within about the
last two centuries that the study has been revived. So late as 1610,
Galileo, a Florentine, discovered and introduced the use of
telescopes, and by applying them to observe the motions and
appearances of the heavenly bodies, afforded additional means for
ascertaining the true structure of the universe. Instead of being
esteemed for those discoveries, he was sentenced to renounce them,
or the opinions resulting from them, as a damnable heresy. And,
prior to that time, Vigilius was condemned to be burned for
asserting the antipodes, or in other words that the earth was a globe,
and habitable in every part where there was land; yet the truth of
this is now too well known even to be told.
If the belief of errors not morally bad did no mischief, it
would make no part of the moral duty of man to oppose and remove them. There was no moral ill in believing the earth was flat like a
trencher, any more than there was moral virtue in believing that it
was round like a globe; neither was there any moral ill in believing
that the Creator made no other world than this, any more than there
was moral virtue in believing that he made millions, and that the
infinity of space is filled with worlds. But when a system of religion
is made to grow out of a supposed system of creation that is not true,
and to unite itself therewith in a manner almost inseparable
therefrom, the case assumes an entirely different ground. It is then
that errors not morally bad become fraught with the same mischiefs
as if they were. It is then that the truth, though otherwise
indifferent itself, becomes an essential by becoming the criterion
that either confirms by corresponding evidence, or denies by
contradictory evidence, the reality of the religion itself. In this
view of the case, it is the moral duty of man to obtain every possible
evidence that the structure of the heavens, or any other part of
creation affords, with respect to systems of religion. But this, the
supporters or partisans of the Christian system, as if dreading the
result, incessantly opposed, and not only rejected the sciences, but
persecuted the professors. Had Newton or Descartes lived three or four hundred years ago, and pursued their studies as they did, it is most probable they would not have lived to finish them; and had Franklin drawn lightning from the clouds at the same time, it would have been at the hazard of expiring for it in the flames.
Later times have laid all the blame upon the Goths and Vandals;
but, however unwilling the partisans of the Christian system may be to
believe or to acknowledge it, it is nevertheless true that the age
of ignorance commenced with the Christian system. There was more
knowledge in the world before that period than for many centuries
afterwards; and as to religious knowledge, the Christian system, as
already said was only another species of mythology, and the
mythology to which it succeeded was a corruption of an ancient
system of theism.*
*It is impossible for us now to know at what time the heathen
mythology began; but it is certain, from the internal evidence that it
carries, that it did not begin in the same state or condition in which
it ended. All the gods of that mythology, except Saturn, were of
modern invention. The supposed reign of Saturn was prior to that which is called the heathen mythology, and was so far a species of theism, that it admitted the belief of only one God. Saturn is supposed to have abdicated the government in favor of his three sons and one daughter, Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, and Juno; after this, thousands of other Gods and demi-gods were imaginarily created, and the calendar of gods increased as fast as the calendar of saints and the calendars of courts have increased since.
All the corruptions that have taken place in theology and in
religion, have been produced by admitting of what man calls revealed
religion. The Mythologists pretended to more revealed religion than
the Christians do. They had their oracles and their priests, who
were supposed to receive and deliver the word of God verbally, on
almost all occasions.
Since, then, all corruptions, down from Moloch to modern
predestinarianism, and the human sacrifices of the heathens to the
Christian sacrifice of the Creator, have been produced by admitting of
what is called revealed religion, the most effectual means to
prevent all such evils and impositions is not to admit of any other
revelation than that which is manifested in the book of creation,
and to contemplate the creation as the only true and real word of
God that ever did or ever will exist; and that everything else, called
the word of God, is fable and imposition.
It is owing to this long interregnum of science, and to no other
cause, that we have now to look through a vast chasm of many hundred years to the respectable characters we call the ancients. Had the progression of knowledge gone on proportionably with that stock that before existed, that chasm would have been filled up with characters rising superior in knowledge to each other; and those ancients we now so much admire would have appeared respectably in the background of the scene. But the Christian system laid all waste; and if we take our stand about the beginning of the sixteenth century, we look back through that long chasm to the times of the ancients, as over a vast sandy desert, in which not a shrub appears to intercept the
vision to the fertile hills beyond.
It is an inconsistency scarcely possible to be credited, that
anything should exist, under the name of a religion, that held it to
be irreligious to study and contemplate the structure of the
universe that God has made. But the fact is too well established to be
denied. The event that served more than any other to break the first
link in this long chain of despotic ignorance is that known by the
name of the Reformation by Luther. From that time, though it does
not appear to have made any part of the intention of Luther, or of
those who are called reformers, the sciences began to revive, and
liberality, their natural associate, began to appear. This was the
only public good the Reformation did; for with respect to religious
good, it might as well not have taken place. The mythology still
continued the same, and a multiplicity of National Popes grew out of
the downfall of the Pope of Christendom.
Having thus shown from the internal evidence of things the cause
that produced a change in the state of learning, and the motive for
substituting the study of the dead languages in the place of the
sciences, I proceed, in addition to several observations already
made in the former part of this work, to compare, or rather to
confront, the evidence that the structure of the universe affords with
the Christian system of religion; but, as I cannot begin this part
better than by referring to the ideas that occurred to me at an
early part of life, and which I doubt not have occurred in some degree
to almost every person at one time or other, I shall state what
those ideas were, and add thereto such other matter as shall arise out
of the subject, giving to the whole, by way of preface, a short
My father being of the Quaker profession, it was my good fortune
to have an exceedingly good moral education, and a tolerable stock
of useful learning. Though I went to the grammar school,* I did not
learn Latin, not only because I had no inclination to learn languages,
but because of the objection the Quakers have against the books in
which the language is taught. But this did not prevent me from being
acquainted with the subject of all the Latin books used in the school.
*The same school, Thetford In Norfolk that the present
Counsellor Mingay went to and under the same master.
The natural bent of my mind was to science. I had some turn, and I
believe some talent, for poetry; but this I rather repressed than
encouraged, as leading too much into the field of imagination. As soon
as I was able I purchased a pair of globes, and attended the
philosophical lectures of Martin and Ferguson, and became afterward
acquainted with Dr. Bevis, of the society called the Royal Society,
then living in the Temple, and an excellent astronomer.
I had no disposition for what is called politics. It presented
to my mind no other idea than as contained in the word Jockeyship.
When therefore I turned my thoughts toward matter of government, I had to form a system for myself that accorded with the moral and
philosophic principles in which I have been educated. I saw, or at
least I thought I saw, a vast scene opening itself to the world in the
affairs of America, and it appeared to me that unless the Americans
changed the plan they were pursuing with respect to the government
of England, and declared themselves independent, they would not only
involve themselves in a multiplicity of new difficulties, but shut out
the prospect that was then offering itself to mankind through their
means. It was from these motives that I published the work known by
the name of Common Sense, which was the first work I ever did publish; and so far as I can judge of myself, I believe I should never have been known in the world as an author, on any subject whatever, had it not been for the affairs of America. I wrote Common Sense the
latter end of the year 1775, and published it the first of January,
1776. Independence was declared the fourth of July following.
Any person who has made observations on the state and progress
of the human mind, by observing his own, cannot but have observed that there are two distinct classes of what are called thoughts – those
that we produce in ourselves by reflection and the act of thinking,
and those that bolt into the mind of their own accord. I have always
made it a rule to treat those voluntary visitors with civility, taking
care to examine, as well as I was able, if they were worth
entertaining, and it is from them I have acquired almost all the
knowledge that I have. As to the learning that any person gains from
school education, it serves only, like a small capital, to put him
in a way of beginning learning for himself afterward. Every person
of learning is finally his own teacher, the reason of which is that
principles, being a distinct quality to circumstances, cannot be
impressed upon the memory; their place of mental residence is the
understanding and they are never so lasting as when they begin by
conception. Thus much for the introductory part.
From the time I was capable of conceiving an idea and acting
upon it by reflection, I either doubted the truth of the Christian
system or thought it to be a strange affair; I scarcely knew which
it was, but I well remember, when about seven or eight years of age,
hearing a sermon read by a relation of mine, who was a great devotee
of the Church, upon the subject of what is called redemption by the
death of the Son of God. After the sermon was ended, I went into the
garden, and as I was going down the garden steps (for I perfectly
recollect the spot) I revolted at the recollection of what I had
heard, and thought to myself that it was making God Almighty act
like a passionate man, that killed his son when he could not revenge
himself in any other way, and as I was sure a man would be hanged that did such a thing, I could not see for what purpose they preached
such sermons. This was not one of that kind of thoughts that had
anything in it of childish levity; it was to me a serious
reflection, arising from the idea I had that God was too good to do
such an action, and also too almighty to be under any necessity of
doing it. I believe in the same manner at this moment; and I
moreover believe, that any system of religion that has anything in
it that shocks the mind of a child, cannot be a true system.
It seems as if parents of the Christian profession were ashamed to
tell their children anything about the principles of their religion.
They sometimes instruct them in morals, and talk to them of the
goodness of what they call Providence, for the Christian mythology has
five deities- there is God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy
Ghost, the God Providence, and the Goddess Nature. But the Christian
story of God the Father putting his son to death, or employing people
to do it (for that is the plain language of the story) cannot be told
by a parent to a child; and to tell him that it was done to make
mankind happier and better is making the story still worse- as if
mankind could be improved by the example of murder; and to tell him
that all this is a mystery is only making an excuse for the
incredibility of it.
How different is this to the pure and simple profession of
Deism! The true Deist has but one Deity, and his religion consists
in contemplating the power, wisdom, and benignity of the Deity in
his works, and in endeavoring to imitate him in everything moral,
scientifical, and mechanical.
The religion that approaches the nearest of all others to true
Deism, in the moral and benign part thereof, is that professed by
the Quakers; but they have contracted themselves too much, by
leaving the works of God out of their system. Though I reverence their
philanthropy, I cannot help smiling at the conceit, that if the
taste of a Quaker could have been consulted at the creation, what a
silent and drab-colored creation it would have been! Not a flower
would have blossomed its gayeties, nor a bird been permitted to sing.
Quitting these reflections, I proceed to other matters. After I
had made myself master of the use of the globes and of the orrery,*
and conceived an idea of the infinity of space, and the eternal
divisibility of matter, and obtained at least a general knowledge of
what is called natural philosophy, I began to compare, or, as I have
before said, to confront the eternal evidence those things afford with
the Christian system of faith.
*As this book may fall into the hands of persons who do not know
what an orrery is, it is for their information I add this note, as the
name gives no idea of the uses of thing. The orrery has its name
from the person who invented it. It is a machinery of clock-work,
representing the universe in miniature, and in which the revolution of
the earth round itself and round the sun, the revolution of the moon
round the earth, the revolution of the planets round the sun, their
relative distances from the sun, as the centre of the whole system,
their relative distances from each other, and their different
magnitudes, are represented as they really exist in what we call the
Though it is not a direct article of the Christian system, that
this world that we inhabit is the whole of the habitable creation, yet
it is so worked up therewith, from what is called the Mosaic account
of the Creation, the story of Eve and the apple, and the counterpart
of that story, the death of the Son of God, that to believe otherwise,
that is, to believe that God created a plurality of worlds, at least
as numerous as what we call stars, renders the Christian system of
faith at once little and ridiculous, and scatters it in the mind
like feathers in the air. The two beliefs cannot be held together in
the same mind, and he who thinks that he believes both, has thought
but little of either.
Though the belief of a plurality of worlds was familiar to the
ancients, it’s only within the last three centuries that the extent
and dimensions of this globe that we inhabit have been ascertained.
Several vessels, following the tract of the ocean, have sailed
entirely round the world, as a man may march in a circle, and come
round by the contrary side of the circle to the spot he set out
from. The circular dimensions of our world, in the widest part, as a
man would measure the widest round of an apple or ball, is only
twenty-five thousand and twenty English miles, reckoning sixty-nine
miles and a half to an equatorial degree, and may be sailed round in
the space of about three years.*
*Allowing a ship to sail, on an average, three miles in an hour,
she would sail entirely round the world in less than one year, if
she could sail in a direct circle; but she is obliged to follow the
course of the ocean.
A world of this extent may, at first thought, appear to us to be
great; but if we compare it with the immensity of space in which it is
suspended, like a bubble or balloon in the air, it is infinitely
less in proportion than the smallest grain of sand is to the size of
the world, or the finest particle of dew to the whole ocean, and is
therefore but small; and, as will be hereafter shown, is only one of a
system of worlds of which the universal creation is composed.
It is not difficult to gain some faint idea of the immensity of
space in which this and all the other worlds are suspended, if we
follow a progression of ideas. When we think of the size or dimensions
of a room, our ideas limit themselves to the walls, and there they
stop; but when our eye or our imagination darts into space, that is,
when it looks upward into what we call the open air, we cannot
conceive any walls or boundaries it can have, and if for the sake of
resting our ideas, we suppose a boundary, the question immediately
renews itself, and asks, what is beyond that boundary? and in the same manner, what is beyond the next boundary? and so on till the
fatigued imagination returns and says, There is no end. Certainly,
then, the Creator was not pent for room when he made this world no
larger than it is, and we have to seek the reason in something else.
If we take a survey of our own world, or rather of this, of
which the Creator has given us the use as our portion in the immense
system of creation, we find every part of it- the earth, the waters,
and the air that surrounds it- filled and, as it were, crowded with
life, down from the largest animals that we know of to the smallest
insects the naked eye can behold, and from thence to others still
smaller, and totally invisible without the assistance of the
microscope. Every tree, every plant, every leaf, serves not only as
a habitation but as a world to some numerous race, till animal
existence becomes so exceedingly refined that the effluvia of a
blade of grass would be food for thousands.
Since, then, no part of our earth is left unoccupied, why is it to
be supposed that the immensity of space is a naked void, lying in
eternal waste? There is room for millions of worlds as large or larger
than ours, and each of them millions of miles apart from each other.
Having now arrived at this point, if we carry our ideas only one
thought further, we shall see, perhaps, the true reason, at least a
very good reason, for our happiness, why the Creator, instead of
making one immense world extending over an immense quantity of
space, has preferred dividing that quantity of matter into several
distinct and separate worlds, which we call planets, of which our
earth is one. But before I explain my ideas upon this subject, it is
necessary (not for the sake of those who already know, but for those
who do not) to show what the system of the universe is.
That part of the universe that is called the solar system (meaning
the system of worlds to which our earth belongs, and of which Sol,
or in English language, the Sun, is the centre) consists, besides
the Sun, of six distinct orbs, or planets, or worlds, besides the
secondary called the satellites or moons, of which our earth has one
that attends her in her annual revolution around the Sun, in like
manner as the other satellites or moons attend the planets or worlds
to which they severally belong, as may be seen by the assistance of
The Sun is the centre, round which those six worlds or planets
revolve at different distances therefrom, and in circles concentrate
to each other. Each world keeps constantly in nearly the same track
round the Sun, and continues, at the same time, turning round itself
in nearly an upright position, as a top turns round itself when it
is spinning on the ground, and leans a little sideways.
It is this leaning of the earth (23.5 degrees) that occasions
summer and winter, and the different length of days and nights. If the earth turned round itself in a position perpendicular to the plane or level of the circle it moves in around the Sun, as a top turns
round when it stands erect on the ground, the days and nights would be always of the same length, twelve hours day and twelve hours night, and the seasons would be uniformly the same throughout the year.
Every time that a planet (our earth for example) turns round
itself, it makes what we call day and night; and every time it goes
entirely round the Sun it makes what we call a year; consequently
our world turns three hundred and sixty-five times round itself, in
going once round the Sun.*
*Those who supposed that the sun went round the earth every 24
hours made the same mistake in idea that a cook would do in fact, that should make the fire go round the meat, instead of the meat turning round itself toward the fire.
The names that the ancients gave to those six worlds, and which
are still called by the same names, are Mercury, Venus, this world
that we call ours, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. They appear larger to
the eye than the stars, being many million miles nearer to our earth
than any of the stars are. The planet Venus is that which is called
the evening star, and sometimes the morning star, as she happens to
set after or rise before the Sun, which in either case is never more
than three hours.
The Sun, as before said, being the centre, the planet or world
nearest the Sun is Mercury; his distance from the Sun is thirty-four
million miles, and he moves round in a circle always at that
distance from the Sun, as a top may be supposed to spin round in the
track in which a horse goes in a mill. The second world is Venus;
she is fifty-seven million miles distant from the Sun, and
consequently moves round in a circle much greater than that of
Mercury. The third world is this that we inhabit, and which is
eighty-eight million miles distant from the Sun, and consequently
moves round in a circle greater than that of Venus. The fourth world
is Mars; he is distant from the Sun one hundred and thirty-four
million miles, and consequently moves round in a circle greater than
that of our earth. The fifth is Jupiter; he is distant from the Sun
five hundred and fifty-seven million miles, and consequently moves
round in a circle greater than that of Mars. The sixth world is
Saturn; he is distant from the Sun seven hundred and sixty-three
million miles, and consequently moves round in a circle that surrounds
the circles, or orbits, of all the other worlds or planets.
The space, therefore, in the air, or in the immensity of space,
that our solar system takes up for the several worlds to perform their
revolutions in round the Sun, is of the extent in a straight line of
the whole diameter of the orbit or circle, in which Saturn moves round
the Sun, which being double his distance from the Sun, is fifteen
hundred and twenty-six million miles and its circular extent is nearly
five thousand million, and its globular contents is almost three
thousand five hundred million times three thousand five hundred
million square miles.*
*If it should be asked, how can man know these things? I have
one plain answer to give, which is, that man knows how to calculate an
eclipse, and also how to calculate to a minute of time when the planet
Venus, in making her revolutions around the sun will come in a
straight line between our earth and the sun, and will appear to us
about the size of a large pea passing across the face of the sun. This
happens but twice in about a hundred years, at the distance of about
eight years from each other, and has happened twice in our time,
both of which were foreknown by calculation. It can also be known when they will happen again for a thousand years to come, or to any other portion of time. As, therefore, man could not be able to do these
things if he did not understand the solar system, and the manner in
which the revolutions of the several planets or worlds are
performed, the fact of calculating an eclipse, or a transit of
Venus, is a proof in point that the knowledge exists; and as to a
few thousand, or even a few million miles, more or less, it makes
scarcely any sensible difference in such immense distances.
But this, immense as it is, is only one system of worlds. Beyond
this, at a vast distance into space, far beyond all power of
calculation, are the stars called the fixed stars. They are called
fixed, because they have no revolutionary motion, as the six worlds or
planets have that I have been describing. Those fixed stars continue
always at the same distance from each other, and always in the same
place, as the Sun does in the centre of our system. The probability,
therefore, is, that each of these fixed stars is also a Sun, round
which another system of worlds or planets, though too remote for us to discover, performs its revolutions, as our system of worlds does round our central Sun.
By this easy progression of ideas, the immensity of space will
appear to us to be filled with systems of worlds, and that no part
of space lies at waste, any more than any part of the globe of earth
and water is left unoccupied.
Having thus endeavored to convey, in a familiar and easy manner,
some idea of the structure of the universe, I return to explain what
I before alluded to, namely, the great benefits arising to man in
consequence of the Creator having made a plurality of worlds, such
as our system is, consisting of a central Sun and six worlds,
besides satellites, in preference to that of creating one world only
of a vast extent.
It is an idea I have never lost sight of, that all our knowledge
of science is derived from the revolutions (exhibited to our eye and
from thence to our understanding) which those several planets or
worlds of which our system is composed make in their circuit round the Sun.
Had, then, the quantity of matter which these six worlds contain
been blended into one solitary globe, the consequence to us would have been, that either no revolutionary motion would have existed, or not a sufficiency of it to give to us the idea and the knowledge of science we now have; and it is from the sciences that all the mechanical arts that contribute so much to our earthly felicity and comfort are derived.
As, therefore, the Creator made nothing in vain, so also must it
be believed that he organized the structure of the universe in the
most advantageous manner for the benefit of man; and as we see, and from experience feel, the benefits we derive from the structure of the universe formed as it is, which benefits we should not have had the opportunity of enjoying, if the structure, so far as relates to our
system, had been a solitary globe- we can discover at least one reason
why a plurality of worlds has been made, and that reason calls forth
the devotional gratitude of man, as well as his admiration.
But it is not to us, the inhabitants of this globe, only, that the
benefits arising from a plurality of worlds are limited. The
inhabitants of each of the worlds of which our system is composed
enjoy the same opportunities of knowledge as we do. They behold the
revolutionary motions of our earth, as we behold theirs. All the
planets revolve in sight of each other, and, therefore, the same
universal school of science presents itself to all.
Neither does the knowledge stop here. The system of worlds next to
us exhibits, in its revolutions, the same principles and school of
science to the inhabitants of their system, as our system does to
us, and in like manner throughout the immensity of space.
Our ideas, not only of the almightiness of the Creator, but of his
wisdom and his beneficence, become enlarged in proportion as we
contemplate the extent and the structure of the universe. The solitary
idea of a solitary world, rolling or at rest in the immense ocean of
space, gives place to the cheerful idea of a society of worlds, so
happily contrived as to administer, even by their motion,
instruction to man. We see our own earth filled with abundance, but we forget to consider how much of that abundance is owing to the
scientific knowledge the vast machinery of the universe has unfolded.
But, in the midst of those reflections, what are we to think of
the Christian system of faith, that forms itself upon the idea of only
one world, and that of no greater extent, as is before shown, than
twenty-five thousand miles? An extent which a man walking at the
rate of three miles an hour, for twelve hours in the day, could he
keep on in a circular direction, would walk entirely round in less
than two years. Alas! what is this to the mighty ocean of space, and
the almighty power of the Creator?
From whence, then, could arise the solitary and strange conceit
that the Almighty, who had millions of worlds equally dependent on his
protection, should quit the care of all the rest, and come to die in
our world, because, they say, one man and one woman had eaten an
apple? And, on the other hand, are we to suppose that every world in
the boundless creation had an Eve, an apple, a serpent, and a
redeemer? In this case, the person who is irreverently called the
Son of God, and sometimes God himself, would have nothing else to do than to travel from world to world, in an endless succession of
deaths, with scarcely a momentary interval of life.
It has been by rejecting the evidence that the word or works of
God in the creation afford to our senses, and the action of our reason
upon that evidence, that so many wild and whimsical systems of faith
and of religion have been fabricated and set up. There may be many
systems of religion that, so far from being morally bad, are in many
respects morally good; but there can be but ONE that is true; and that
one necessarily must, as it ever will, be in all things consistent
with the ever-existing word of God that we behold in his works. But
such is the strange construction of the Christian system of faith that
every evidence the Heavens afford to man either directly contradicts
it or renders it absurd.
It is possible to believe, and I always feel pleasure in
encouraging myself to believe it, that there have been men in the
world who persuade themselves that what is called a pious fraud might, at least under particular circumstances, be productive of some good. But the fraud being once established, could not afterward be
explained, for it is with a pious fraud as with a bad action, it
begets a calamitous necessity of going on.
The persons who first preached the Christian system of faith,
and in some measure combined it with the morality preached by Jesus
Christ, might persuade themselves that it was better than the
heathen mythology that then prevailed. From the first preachers the
fraud went on to the second, and to the third, till the idea of its
being a pious fraud became lost in the belief of its being true; and
that belief became again encouraged by the interests of those who made a livelihood by preaching it.
But though such a belief might by such means be rendered almost
general among the laity, it is next to impossible to account for the
continual persecution carried on by the Church, for several hundred
years, against the sciences and against the professors of science,
if the Church had not some record or tradition that it was
originally no other than a pious fraud, or did not foresee that it
could not be maintained against the evidence that the structure of the
Having thus shown the irreconcilable inconsistencies between the
real word of God existing in the universe, and that which is called
the Word of God, as shown to us in a printed book that any man might
make, I proceed to speak of the three principal means that have been
employed in all ages, and perhaps in all countries, to impose upon
Those three means are Mystery, Miracle, and Prophecy. The two
first are incompatible with true religion, and the third ought
always to be suspected.
With respect to mystery, everything we behold is, in one sense,
a mystery to us. Our own existence is a mystery; the whole vegetable
world is a mystery. We cannot account how it is that an acorn, when
put into the ground, is made to develop itself, and become an oak.
We know not how it is that the seed we sow unfolds and multiplies
itself, and returns to us such an abundant interest for so small a
The fact, however, as distinct from the operating cause, is not
a mystery, because we see it, and we know also the means we are to
use, which is no other than putting the seed into the ground. We know, therefore, as much as is necessary for us to know; and that part of the operation that we do not know, and which, if we did, we could
not perform, the Creator takes upon himself and performs it for us. We
are, therefore, better off than if we had been let into the secret,
and left to do it for ourselves.
But though every created thing is, in this sense, a mystery, the
word mystery cannot be applied to moral truth, any more than obscurity can be applied to light. The God in whom we believe is a God of moral truth, and not a God of mystery or obscurity. Mystery is the
antagonist of truth. It is a fog of human invention, that obscures
truth, and represents it in distortion. Truth never envelops itself in
mystery, and the mystery in which it is at any time enveloped is the
work of its antagonist, and never of itself.
Religion, therefore, being the belief of a God and the practice of
moral truth, cannot have connection with mystery. The belief of a God,
so far from having anything of mystery in it, is of all beliefs the
most easy, because it arises to us, as is before observed, out of
necessity. And the practice of moral truth, or, in other words, a
practical imitation of the moral goodness of God, is no other than our
acting toward each other as he acts benignly toward all. We cannot
serve God in the manner we serve those who cannot do without such
service; and, therefore, the only idea we can have of serving God,
is that of contributing to the happiness of the living creation that
God has made. This cannot be done by retiring ourselves from the
society of the world and spending a recluse life in selfish devotion.
The very nature and design of religion, if I may so express it,
prove even to demonstration that it must be free from everything of
mystery, and unencumbered with everything that is mysterious.
Religion, considered as a duty, is incumbent upon every living soul
alike, and, therefore, must be on a level with the understanding and
comprehension of all. Man does not learn religion as he learns the
secrets and mysteries of a trade. He learns the theory of religion
by reflection. It arises out of the action of his own mind upon the
things which he sees, or upon what he may happen to hear or to read,
and the practice joins itself thereto.
When men, whether from policy or pious fraud, set up systems of
religion incompatible with the word or works of God in the creation,
and not only above, but repugnant to human comprehension, they were under the necessity of inventing or adopting a word that should
serve as a bar to all questions, inquiries and speculation. The word
mystery answered this purpose, and thus it has happened that religion, which is in itself without mystery, has been corrupted into a fog of mysteries.
As mystery answered all general purposes, miracle followed as an
occasional auxiliary. The former served to bewilder the mind, the
latter to puzzle the senses. The one was the lingo, the other the
But before going further into this subject, it will be proper to
inquire what is to be understood by a miracle.
In the same sense that everything may be said to be a mystery,
so also may it be said that everything is a miracle, and that no one
thing is a greater miracle than another. The elephant, though
larger, is not a greater miracle than a mite, nor a mountain a greater
miracle than an atom. To an almighty power, it is no more difficult to
make the one than the other, and no more difficult to make millions of
worlds than to make one. Everything, therefore, is a miracle, in one
sense, whilst in the other sense, there is no such thing as a miracle.
It is a miracle when compared to our power and to our comprehension, if not a miracle compared to the power that performs it; but as nothing in this description conveys the idea that is affixed to the word miracle, it is necessary to carry the inquiry further.
Mankind have conceived to themselves certain laws, by which what
they call nature is supposed to act; and that miracle is something
contrary to the operation and effect of those laws; but unless we know
the whole extent of those laws, and of what are commonly called the
powers of nature, we are not able to judge whether anything that may
appear to us wonderful or miraculous be within, or be beyond, or be
contrary to, her natural power of acting.
The ascension of a man several miles high in the air would have
everything in it that constitutes the idea of a miracle, if it were
not known that a species of air can be generated, several times
lighter than the common atmospheric air, and yet possess elasticity
enough to prevent the balloon in which that light air is enclosed from
being compressed into as many times less bulk by the common air that surrounds it. In like manner, extracting flames or sparks of fire from the human body, as visible as from a steel struck with a flint, and
causing iron or steel to move without any visible agent, would also
give the idea of a miracle, if we were not acquainted with electricity
and magnetism. So also would many other experiments in natural
philosophy, to those who are not acquainted with the subject. The
restoring persons to life who are to appearance dead, as is
practised upon drowned persons, would also be a miracle, if it were
not known that animation is capable of being suspended without being
Besides these, there are performances by sleight-of-hand, and by
persons acting in concert, that have a miraculous appearance, which
when known are thought nothing of. And besides these, there are
mechanical and optical deceptions. There is now an exhibition in Paris
of ghosts or spectres, which, though it is not imposed upon the
spectators as a fact, has an astonishing appearance. As, therefore, we
know not the extent to which either nature or art can go, there is
no positive criterion to determine what a miracle is, and mankind,
in giving credit to appearances, under the idea of there being
miracles, are subject to be continually imposed upon.
Since, then, appearances are so capable of deceiving, and things
not real have a strong resemblance to things that are, nothing can
be more inconsistent than to suppose that the Almighty would make
use of means such as are called miracles, that would subject the
person who performed them to the suspicion of being an impostor, and
the person who related them to be suspected of lying, and the doctrine
intended to be supported thereby to be suspected as a fabulous
Of all the modes of evidence that ever were invented to obtain
belief to any system or opinion to which the name of religion has been
given, that of miracle, however successful the imposition may have
been, is the most inconsistent. For, in the first place, whenever
recourse is had to show, for the purpose of procuring that belief,
(for a miracle, under any idea of the word, is a show), it implies a
lameness or weakness in the doctrine that is preached. And, in the
second place, it is degrading the Almighty into the character of a
showman, playing tricks to amuse and make the people stare and wonder. It is also the most equivocal sort of evidence that can be set up; for the belief is not to depend upon the thing called a miracle, but upon the credit of the reporter who says that he saw it; and,
therefore, the thing, were it true, would have no better chance of
being believed than if it were a lie.
Suppose I were to say, that when I sat down to write this book,
a hand presented itself in the air, took up the pen, and wrote every
word that is herein written; would anybody believe me? Certainly
they would not. Would they believe me a whit the more if the thing had been a fact? Certainly they would not. Since, then, a real miracle,
were it to happen, would be subject to the same fate as the falsehood,
the inconsistency becomes the greater of supposing the Almighty
would make use of means that would not answer the purpose for which they were intended, even if they were real.
If we are to suppose a miracle to be something so entirely out
of the course of what is called nature, that she must go out of that
course to accomplish it, and we see an account given of such miracle
by the person who said he saw it, it raises a question in the mind
very easily decided, which is, is it more probable that nature
should go out of her course, or that a man should tell a lie? We
have never seen, in our time, nature go out of her course; but we have good reason to believe that millions of lies have been told in the
same time; it is therefore, at least millions to one, that the
reporter of a miracle tells a lie.
The story of the whale swallowing Jonah, though a whale is large
enough to do it, borders greatly on the marvelous; but it would have
approached nearer to the idea of a miracle, if Jonah had swallowed the
whale. In this, which may serve for all cases of miracles, the
matter would decide itself, as before stated, namely, is it more
that a man should have swallowed a whale or told a lie?
But suppose that Jonah had really swallowed the whale, and gone
with it in his belly to Nineveh, and, to convince the people that it
was true, had cast it up in their sight, of the full length and size
of a whale, would they not have believed him to be the devil,
instead of a prophet? Or, if the whale had carried Jonah to Ninevah,
and cast him up in the same public manner, would they not have
believed the whale to have been the devil, and Jonah one of his imps?
The most extraordinary of all the things called miracles,
related in the New Testament, is that of the devil flying away with
Jesus Christ, and carrying him to the top of a high mountain, and to
the top of the highest pinnacle of the temple, and showing him and
promising to him all the kingdoms of the World. How happened it that
he did not discover America, or is it only with kingdoms that his
sooty highness has any interest?
I have too much respect for the moral character of Christ to
believe that he told this whale of a miracle himself; neither is it
easy to account for what purpose it could have been fabricated, unless
it were to impose upon the connoisseurs of Queen Anne’s farthings
and collectors of relics and antiquities; or to render the belief of
miracles ridiculous, by outdoing miracles, as Don Quixote outdid
chivalry; or to embarrass the belief of miracles, by making it
doubtful by what power, whether of God or of the devil, anything
called a miracle was performed. It requires, however, a great deal
of faith in the devil to believe this miracle.
In every point of view in which those things called miracles can
be placed and considered, the reality of them is improbable and
their existence unnecessary. They would not, as before observed,
answer any useful purpose, even if they were true; for it is more
difficult to obtain belief to a miracle, than to a principle evidently
moral without any miracle. Moral principle speaks universally for
itself. Miracle could be but a thing of the moment, and seen but by
a few; after this it requires a transfer of faith from God to man to
believe a miracle upon man’s report. Instead, therefore, of
admitting the recitals of miracles as evidence of any system of
religion being true, they ought to be considered as symptoms of its
being fabulous. It is necessary to the full and upright character of
truth that it rejects the crutch, and it is consistent with the
character of fable to seek the aid that truth rejects. Thus much for
mystery and miracle.
As mystery and miracle took charge of the past and the present,
prophecy took charge of the future and rounded the tenses of faith. It
was not sufficient to know what had been done, but what would be done. The supposed prophet was the supposed historian of times to come; and if he happened, in shooting with a long bow of a thousand years, to strike within a thousand miles of a mark, the ingenuity of posterity could make it point-blank; and if he happened to be directly
wrong, it was only to suppose, as in the case of Jonah and Nineveh,
that God had repented himself and changed his mind. What a fool do
fabulous systems make of man!
It has been shown, in a former part of this work, that the
original meaning of the words prophet and prophesying has been
changed, and that a prophet, in the sense of the word as now used,
is a creature of modern invention; and it is owing to this change in
the meaning of the words, that the flights and metaphors of the Jewish
poets, and phrases and expressions now rendered obscure by our not
being acquainted with the local circumstances to which they applied at
the time they were used, have been erected into prophecies, and made to bend to explanations at the will and whimsical conceits of
sectaries, expounders, and commentators. Everything unintelligible was prophetical, and everything insignificant was typical. A blunder would have served for a prophecy, and a dish-clout for a type.
If by a prophet we are to suppose a man to whom the Almighty
communicated some event that would take place in future, either
there were such men or there were not. If there were, it is consistent
to believe that the event so communicated would be told in terms
that could be understood, and not related in such a loose and
obscure manner as to be out of the comprehension of those that heard
it, and so equivocal as to fit almost any circumstance that may happen
afterward. It is conceiving very irreverently of the Almighty, to
suppose that he would deal in this jesting manner with mankind, yet
all the things called prophecies in the book called the Bible come
under this description.
But it is with prophecy as it is with miracle; it could not answer
the purpose even if it were real. Those to whom a prophecy should be
told, could not tell whether the man prophesied or lied, or whether it
had been revealed to him, or whether he conceited it; and if the thing
that he prophesied, or intended to prophesy, should happen, or
something like it, among the multitude of things that are daily
happening, nobody could again know whether he foreknew it, or
guessed at it, or whether it was accidental. A prophet, therefore,
is a character useless and unnecessary; and the safe side of the
case is to guard against being imposed upon by not giving credit to
Upon the whole, mystery, miracle, and prophecy are appendages that belong to fabulous and not to true religion. They are the means by which so many Lo, heres! and Lo, theres! have been spread about the world, and religion been made into a trade. The success of one
imposter gave encouragement to another, and the quieting salvo of
doing some good by keeping up a pious fraud protected them from
Having now extended the subject to a greater length than I first
intended, I shall bring it to a close by abstracting a summary from
First- That the idea or belief of a word of God existing in
print, or in writing, or in speech, is inconsistent in itself for
reasons already assigned. These reasons, among many others, are the
want of a universal language; the mutability of language; the errors
to which translations are subject: the possibility of totally
suppressing such a word; the probability of altering it, or of
fabricating the whole, and imposing it upon the world.
Secondly- That the Creation we behold is the real and
ever-existing word of God, in which we cannot be deceived. It
proclaims his power, it demonstrates his wisdom, it manifests his
goodness and beneficence.
Thirdly- That the moral duty of man consists in imitating the
moral goodness and beneficence of God, manifested in the creation
toward all his creatures. That seeing, as we daily do, the goodness
of God to all men, it is an example calling upon all men to practice
the same toward each other; and, consequently, that everything of
persecution and revenge between man and man, and everything of
cruelty to animals, is a violation of moral duty.
I trouble not myself about the manner of future existence. I
content myself with believing, even to positive conviction, that the
Power that gave me existence is able to continue it, in any form and
manner he pleases, either with or without this body; and it appears
more probable to me that I shall continue to exist hereafter, than
that I should have had existence, as I now have, before that existence
It is certain that, in one point, all the nations of the earth and
all religions agree- all believe in a God; the things in which they
disagree, are the redundancies annexed to that belief; and, therefore,
if ever a universal religion should prevail, it will not be by
believing anything new, but in getting rid of redundancies, and
believing as man believed at first. Adam, if ever there were such a
man, was created a Deist; but in the meantime, let every man follow,
as he has a right to do, the religion and the worship he prefers.
END OF THE FIRST PART.
Thus far I had written on the 28th of December, 1793. In the
evening I went to the Hotel Philadelphia (formerly White’s Hotel),
Passage des Petis Peres, where I lodged when I came to Paris, in
consequence of being elected a member of the Convention, but left
the lodging about nine months, and taken lodgings in the Rue Fauxbourg St. Denis, for the sake of being more retired than I could be in the middle of the town.
Meeting with a company of Americans at the Hotel Philadelphia, I
agreed to spend the evening with them; and, as my lodging was
distant about a mile and a half, I bespoke a bed at the hotel. The
company broke up about twelve o’clock, and I went directly to bed.
About four in the morning I was awakened by a rapping at my chamber door; when I opened it, I saw a guard, and the master of the hotel with them. The guard told me they came to put me under arrestation, and to demand the key of my papers. I desired them to walk in, and I would dress myself and go with them immediately.
It happened that Achilles Audibert, of Calais, was then in the
hotel; and I desired to be conducted into his room. When we came
there, I told the guard that I had only lodged at the hotel for the
night; that I was printing a work, and that part of that work was at
the Maison Bretagne, Rue Jacob; and desired they would take me there first, which they did.
The printing-office at which the work was printing was near to the
Maison Bretagne, where Colonel Blackden and Joel Barlow, of the United States of America, lodged; and I had desired Joel Barlow to compare the proof-sheets with the copy as they came from the press. The remainder of the manuscript, from page 32 to 76, was at my lodging. But besides the necessity of my collecting all the parts of the work together that the publication might not be interrupted by my imprisonment, or by any event that might happen to me, it was highly proper that I should have a fellow-citizen of America with me during the examination of my papers, as I had letters of correspondence in my possession of the President of Congress General Washington; the Minister of Foreign Affairs to Congress Mr. Jefferson; and the late Benjamin Franklin; and it might be necessary for me to make a proces-verbal to send to Congress.
It happened that Joel Barlow had received only one proof-sheet
of the work, which he had compared with the copy and sent it back to
We then went, in company with Joel Barlow, to my lodging; and
the guard, or commissaires, took with them the interpreter to the
Committee of Surety-General. It was satisfactory to me, that they went through the examination of my papers with the strictness they did; and it is but justice that I say, they did it not only with civility,
but with tokens of respect to my character.
I showed them the remainder of the manuscript of the foregoing
work. The interpreter examined it and returned it to me, saying, “It
is an interesting work; it will do much good.” I also showed him
another manuscript, which I had intended for the Committee of Public
Safety. It is entitled, “Observations on the Commerce between the
United States of America and France.”
After the examination of my papers was finished, the guard
conducted me to the prison of the Luxembourg, where they left me as
they would a man whose undeserved fate they regretted. I offered to
write under the proces-verbal they had made that they had executed
their orders with civility, but they declined it.